If you want to be successful in Project Test Estimation then you should have execution knowledge which is eventually very significant in Software Testing Life Cycle. Software Test Estimation Techniques are indeed essential to make good reputation with your client when you bid for testing projects. It also gives you idea that how your approach should be during the execution of the project.
In case, you have experience in various software testing life cycle then chances are higher that you estimate your project very well as your experience may help you in providing various ideas & techniques for that testing project. It is practically not possible to put some number of days or estimate with old time formula of one third of the development effort. The requirement keeps on changing from client side & we have to adjust the same accordingly. Some companies which offer testing services use this formula which isn’t correct as it is not based on any scientific techniques or principles.
Following factors are indeed essential for any software test estimation and they are highly recommended in any software testing organization.
Many techniques are used in recent years that have been developed for test estimation of the software.
Use-Case Point Method is completely based on the use cases that we calculate the un-adjusted actor weights to determine the software test estimation.
Use case is a document which well specifies systems, different users or other stakeholders that interact with the concerned application. They are certainly named as ‘Actors’. The interactions achieve some defined goals hence protecting the interest of all stakeholders via flow termed or different behavior as scenarios.
The formula used for this technique is:
3-Point Software Testing Estimation Technique is completely based on statistical methods where each testing task is broken down into sub tasks and further into three types on each tasks.
The formula used by this technique is:
Test Estimate = P + (4*N) + E / 6
Whereas P = Positive Scenarios or Optimistic Estimate (Best case scenario in which nothing goes wrong and all conditions are optimal.)
N = Negative Scenarios or Most Likely Estimate (most likely duration and there may be some problem but most of the things will go right.)
E = Exceptional Scenarios or Pessimistic Estimate (worst case scenario which everything goes wrong.)
Standard deviation for the technique is calculated as,
Standard Deviation (SD) = (N – E)/6
This method is created by breaking down the test project into small pieces. Modules are separated into sub-modules. Sub modules are then further separated into functionalities and functionalities are then separated in sub-functionalities.
You should review all the requirements from Requirement Document so as to make sure that they are added in WBS. Later, figure out the number of tasks your team needs to complete. Estimate properly the duration of each task.
Following the same procedure as above in WBS. In this, work breakdown structure is disintegrated for each task and further distributed to a team comprising of say 3-7 members so as to re-estimate the task. The final estimate is the consequence of the brief estimates that are based on the team consensus. This method actually speaks more on experience instead of any statistical formula. Moreover, this method is initially popularized by Barry Boehm to emphasize on the group iteration so as to reach to a consensus where the team visualize on the different aspects of problems whereas estimating the test effort.
The Function Point technique is a direct pointer of the functionality of software application from the user’s viewpoint. This technique is the most accepted technique that is used to estimate the size of a software project.
This technique is also a part of TMap. In function point technique, function points are converted into test points. In Test Point analysis, we carry out following:
In Software Testing, estimation is generally based on previously created application prototype or requirement specification document. To calculate FP for a project, some of the major components are required.
The major components required are:
Unadjusted Data Function Points:
Unadjusted Transaction Function Points:
Number of Test cases = [Number of Function Points] x 1.2
Total Actual Effort, TAE = (Number of Test cases) * (Percentage of development effort /100)
This method is used when requirement document or a detailed low level design document is available. Previous data for development and testing & measure of function point is available.
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Question: Write a python program to generate passwords Program:
Question: Calculate area of a rectangle using classes Program:
Question: Create a list of even numbers between 0 and 10 using
Question : Write a program to print prime numbers within a
Question: Write a program to show the difference between
Question: Perform the following operations on the below
Question: Write a program to check the validity of password
Question: Write a program to print the following pattern
Question: Print the below pattern
Question: Write a program to print the following pattern
Following are the most standard test automation tool used in most of the companies:
QTP/UFT: HP Functional Test, earlier known as HP’s Quick Test Professional is the Automation testing tool that supports number of environments such as Java, SAP, Delphi and many more. QTP can be collaborated with Quality centre which is actually a Test Management tool used for client/server applications.
Rational Robot: It is basically an IBM tool that is used to automate functional, regression and configuration tests for e-commerce, client server as well as ERP applications. This tool can be used with Rational Test Manager that helps in Test Management Activities
Selenium: This is an open source web Automation Tool which supports all kinds of web browsers and the most demanding tool in today’s market. Many companies are using this tool for sake of its performance and price. It can be integrated with multiple Test Management tools, Continuous Integration Tools etc.
It is really a tricky task to choose an Automation tool. Following criteria will assist you in choosing the best automation tool for your test automation.
Automation Tool selection is one of major trials to be undertaken prior opting for automation. Initially requirements should be identified, various tools and its capabilities should be explored. You should set the expectation from the tool further going for a Proof of concept.
A framework is actually a set of automation guidelines. It increases code re-usability, portability, reduce script maintenance cost etc. These are not rules and are not mandatory. You can script without following the guidelines. But you may miss some advantages of having a Framework. Guidelines are like:
Four types of framework are generally used in software automation testing:
Observe the following to get maximum ROI of automation
The above guidelines are indeed helpful while making selection of your automation tool.
Following are advantages of automated testing:
You should have three essential things for Automation to be successful. They are Right selection of automation tool, testing process and team. For successful testing, Manual and automation methods go hand-in hand.
Manual testing is very convenient as compared to Automation testing as it is performed by human who sits in front of computer, while executing the test steps very carefully. Automation Testing refers to usage of automation tools that can execute your test suite. Automation software enters test data into the system under test. It is also responsible for comparing the expected and actual results so as to generate detailed test reports.
If you are planning to choose Automation testing for your product then you need to be prepared for the investments on resources and tools. The development of your product will need execution of same test suite until the final product is made. With the use of test automation tool, it becomes quite easy to record this suite while re-playing it as required by your product. There is no need of human intervention, once test suite is automated. This will eventually help in improving the ROI of Test Automation.
The main objective of Automation tool is to lessen number of test cases when compared with manual testing, hence not eliminating the manual testing all of a sudden.
Following reasons makes Automation testing significant:
Following criterion can be used to select the Test cases that need to be automated, to increase the ROI of automation.
Selection of the automation tool depends on the technology which the Application under test is built on. To explain with QTP, it does not support Informatica hence cannot be used for testing the Informatica applications. It is always better idea to conduct proof of concept of Tool on AUT.
Scope of automation is defined as the extent of your Application under Test that will be automated. Following points aid in determining scope:
This is the phase where you create Automation strategy & plan, that has following details-
During this phase, Automation Scripts are executed. The scripts here require input test data; prior they are set to run. Once on complete execution, they provide detailed report.
There are multiple ways of carrying out the execution i.e. through Automation tool, build tool (Maven, Ant, Gradle etc), CI Tool (Teamcity, Jenkins etc) or through Test Management tool, which eventually invokes the automation tool.
For instance take example of QC which is generally referred as Quality Centre. It is basically a test management tool which eventually invokes QTP so as to execute automation scripts. You can execute the scripts on single machine or a group of machines. If you are short of time, then you may execute the scripts during night so that your time will be saved.
Automation Scripts need to be reviewed, added and maintained for each release cycle on addition of new functionalities of System under Test. Maintenance is indeed essential to increase efficiency of Automation Scripts.